No drug is currently available for prevention of primary bladder cancer, although many agents are under clinical and preclinical evaluation. Approximately 80% bladder cancers are superficial at initial presentation (no invasion into the muscle), most of which will recur after surgical removal of the cancer. Current chemopreventive strategies are aimed at inhibiting the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. BCG, mentioned before, which is an attenuated bacterium, is most commonly used in the clinic, but in patients BCG fails or is contraindicated, chemical agents (e.g. mitomycin) are used. All agents are delivered intravesically via a urethral catheter, which is intended to avoid or reduce systemic side effects of the drug. My lab has been working to develop oral agents that can be selectively delivered to bladder via urinary excretion, doing away with urethral catheter. Promising results have been obtained, but still in the preclinical stage. If anyone is interested in these studies, please read Bhattacharya et al., Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allylisothiocyanate, Carcinogenesis, 31, 281-286, 2010 or Bhattacharya et al., Allylisothiocyanate-rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion, Carcinogenesis, 31, 2105-2110; 2010.